Tortricinae

The Tortricinae is a subfamily of the leafrollers (Tortricidae), of which about 4,200 species have been described worldwide. It is a monophyletic group, a group of organisms that are believed to have all the same common ancestor that is itself included in the taxon and all of which descendants are placed in the same group. The Tortricinae is a sister group of the Olethreutinae. The main food source is from 2 or more plant families with which they are polyphagous. The eggs are laid individually, in small groups, or in large masses. The hatched larvae are mainly leafrollers.

 

Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Adoxophyes

Summer Fruit Tortrix – 2023 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 480707)

The male of the Summer Fruit Tortrix (Adoxophyes orana) is normally smaller than the female. The forewing of the male is tan with dark brown markings. The wing root is dark colored, and a brown spot can be seen along the leading edge near the wing tip. Starting at 1/3, a dark band runs from the leading edge towards the centre of the inner edge. The flight period is in two generations, from May to October, and the wingspan is 15-22mm. Host plant: Apple, Pear, Plum, Willow, Rose, and Honeysuckle. Dutch name: Vruchtbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Aphelia

Timothy Tortrix – 2021 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 753154)

A fairly easy-to-describe leaf roller is the Timothy Tortrix (Aphelia paleana). The forewing is white-grey to pale yellow-brown without further markings. In the male, the base of the wing, thorax, and head is mainly orange-yellow. The underside of the forewing is pale grey-brown. The flight period is one generation from June to September, and the wingspan is 18-22mm. The larvae feed on a spun leaf. Host plants: Common Couch, Knapweed, Plantain, and Meadowsweet. English name: Timothy Tortrix. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Archips

Large Fruit-tree Tortrix – 2017 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 2.655036)

The Large Fruit-tree Tortrix (Archips podana) is a fairly easy-to-recognize leafroller because of the “bell” shape, which can be seen resting. The males and females are different in colour. The female is brown with only a dark elongated spot along the costa. The male has a dark median band in the middle of the wing and a dark spot at the base. Furthermore, the male has a white zone on the wing. This leafroller flies in two generations from May to September, and the wingspan is 18-26mm. The larvae feed on the foliage, flowers, and fruit of various deciduous trees. Host plant: Hazel, Beech, Apple, Pear, Rose, and Blueberry. Dutch name: Grote appelbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Archips

Variegated Golden Tortrix – 2018 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.100919)

A leafroller that is certainly not the mother’s prettiest and took me a bit more time to identify is the Variegated Golden Tortrix (Archips xylosteana). The very dark, almost black specimens make identification very difficult. Normally, the forewings are pale yellow-brown, sometimes dark, and predominantly grey-brown with reddish-brown markings. The base field forms an oblique slender spot with a rounded top. The median band is very sloping, especially in the males. The lower half is greatly widened, the costa slightly concave, and the dorsum clear everywhere with a crooked tooth above and an obtuse angle below the middle. The spot at the costa is wider and rectangular. The flying period is from the end of May to mid-August in one generation, and the wingspan is 15-23mm. Larvae can be found in a rolled leaf. Host plants: Maple, Hawthorn, Poplar, Birch, Honeysuckle, and fruit trees. Dutch name: Gevlamde bladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Archips

Pine Tortrix – 2018 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.100917)

As with several leafrollers of the Archips spp., the beautiful Pine Tortrix (Archips oporana) male is also smaller and more marked than the female. The male’s forewing is purplish-brown with reddish-brown markings surrounded by a thin white line. The females have a pale purplish-brown with reddish-brown markings and a net-like pattern all over the wing. The hindwing is grey-brown with a coppery glow in the male, while it is more orange in the female. The flying period is from June to July in one generation, and the wingspan is 19-28mm. The larvae feed amongst the needles. Host plant: Scots Pine and Silver Fir. Dutch name: Fraaie dennenbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Archips

Brown Oak Tortrix – 2021 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.857967)

The ground colour of the male Brown Oak Tortrix (Archips crataegana) is usually lighter than that of the female. Dark brown markings can be seen on the light grey-brown wing. From the base of the wing, a short bar runs obliquely from the dorsum to the centre of the wing. On 2/3 a large stain can be seen that just does not extend to the costa. Near the apex, a stain runs obliquely from the costa to the dorsum. All spots are lightly outlined, and the apex is pointed. The flight period is from June to September in one generation, and the wingspan is 19-22mm for the male and 23-28mm for the female. The larvae roll in the leaves of the host plant. Host plant: Oak, Ash, Elm, and Sallow. English name: Brown Oak Tortrix. Frisian name: –

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Caoecimorpha

Carnation Tortrix – 2018 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 287198)

The male Carnation Tortrix (Caoecimorpha pronuba) is distinguishable from the female. The male is smaller than the female. The male’s forewing is dark yellow-brown with a faint dark brown net-like pattern on the outside—furthermore, a dark brown to purplish spot. The female’s wings are longer, and a peak shape can be seen at the apex. The top of the wing is lighter in colour, and the reticulated pattern is visible. The hindwing is orangish. The flying period is two generations for much of the year, and the wingspan is 14-24mm. Larvae can be found in the spinning. Host plant: Rose, Spurge, and Cardinal’s Cap. Dutch name: Anjerbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Choristoneura

Great Tortrix – 2023 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.100946)

One of the larger species and easily recognizable is the Great Tortrix (Choristaneura hebenstreitella). The forewing is tan, grey, and tinged with faint brown lines, creating a net structure. Halfway along the inner edge, a broad, dark transverse band falls short of the dark spot at the leading edge. Near the wing tip, a second dark spot, almost a semicircle, can be seen along the leading edge. A dark zone is also present at the wing root, distinguishing it from the Large Ivy Tortrix (Lozotaenia forsterana). The flight period is one generation, from late May to July, and the wingspan is 20-30mm. Host plant: Oak, Birch, and Hazel. Dutch name: Reuzenbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Clepsis

Cyclamen Tortrix – 2018 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.144650)

A common leafroller is the Cyclamen Tortrix (Clepsis spectrana). The forewing is pale yellow-brown, sometimes a little reddish, with various speckles. The dark brown transverse band halfway down the wing and the dark brown spot near the apex are striking. The flying period is in two generations, from May to September, and the wingspan is 16-22mm. The larvae feed on the spun leaves and flowers. Host plants: Willow, Meadowsweet, Yellow Flag, Nettle, Honeysuckle, Cyclamen, Strawberry, and Hop. Dutch name: Koolbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Clepsis

Privet Tortrix – 2018 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.100947)

The male and female of the Privet Tortrix (Clepsis consimilana) are, as you often see with the leafrollers, differently marked. The male’s forewing is tan with light markings and an oblique transverse band. The female is darker and has a reddish-brown speckle on the forewing. Furthermore, the female has no transverse band or other markings except for a few black spots along the termen. The flying period in one generation is from June to September, and the wingspan is 13-19mm. The larvae feed on trees, preferring dead or withered leaves in a dense, untidy spinning. Host plants: Privet, Lilac, Honeysuckle, Hawthorn, and Apple. Dutch name: Tuinbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Lozotaeniodes

Orange Pine Tortrix – 2020 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.870046)

The forewing of the Orange Pine Tortrix (Lozotaeniodes formosana) is pale yellow-brown with many lighter continuous spots that are dark reddish-brown edged. The flying period in one generation is from May to August, and sometimes a second generation in October. The wingspan is 20-26mm, and the larvae feed in a silk tube along a twig. Host plant: Scots Pine. Dutch name: Stipjesbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Pandemis

Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix – 2017 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 572788)

The Barred Fruit-tree Tortrix (Pandemis cerasana) is a small leafroller that, like many relatives, keeps its wings in a flat “bell” shape when resting. The top of the wing is brown and from above a clear brown V-shaped band can be seen. More to the apex, a dark brown spot can be seen along the termen. Flight time is one generation from June to September, and the wingspan is 16-25mm. Larvae can be found in a rolled or folded leaf. Host plant: Oak, Alder, Birch, and Bilberry. Dutch name: Kersenbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Ptycholoma

Brindled Tortrix – 2020 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 116133)

The forewing of the Brindled Tortrix (Ptycholoma lecheana) is predominantly yellow-brown with many dark to pale ruddy brown spots in the outer half. A dark oblique spot is visible halfway along the dorsum. Furthermore, a lead-grey thin cross band halfway down the wing from the costa and a second lead-grey cross band more towards the apex. The flying period in one generation is from May to mid-August, and the wingspan is 16-20mm. The larvae feed on rolled or spun leaves. Host plant: Apple, Poplar, Oak, Willow, and Larch. Dutch name: Geelbuikbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Archipini
Genus: Syndemis

Dark-barred Tortrix – 2020 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.101060)

The forewing of the Dark-barred Tortrix (Syndemis musculana) is grey-white, silver-grey to grey-brown, and sparsely speckled. From the center of the dorsum a dark brown sometimes black median band tapers towards the costa. A dark spot can be seen along the costa close to the apex. The intensity of the markers varies widely. The flying period in one generation is from the end of April to the middle of July, and the wingspan is 15-22mm. The larvae feed in a rolled or folded leaf. Host plant: Bog-myrtle, Bramble, Oak, and Birch. Dutch name: Struikbladroller. Frisian name:

Flying period:

 

Tribe: Cochylini
Genus: Aethes

Burdock Conch – 2020 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.594218)

The Burdock Conch (Aethes rubigana) is very similar to the Thistle Conch (Aethes cnicana). The big difference is in the dark cross band on the cream-white forewing, which is wider in the Burdock Conch than in the Thistle Conch. Light brown patches can also be seen on the forewing, with the two spots close to the costa being slightly darker. The flying period in one generation is from the beginning of June to August, and the wingspan is 15-19mm. The larvae feed on seeds. Host plant: Greater Burdock. Dutch name: Donker c-smaluiltje. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Cochylini
Genus: Aethes

Yarrow Conch – 2020 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.594220)

The Yarrow Conch (Aethes smeathmanniana) has a pale yellow forewing with some yellow-brown spots. Furthermore, two orange-brown or red-brown transverse bands run from the dorsum to the centre. The cross band on 1/3 continues to the centre, and the cross band on 2/3 is quite short. The flying period in one generation is from the beginning of May to the middle of June, and the wingspan is 12-19mm. The larvae feed on the seeds from the yarrow I have as a host plant in my garden. Host plant: Yarrow, Common Knapweed, and Corn Chamomile. Dutch name: Kommabladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Cochylini
Genus: Agapeta

Common Yellow Conch – 2017 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.100904)

The Common Yellow Conch (Agapeta hamana) has a bright pale yellow forewing. On the forewing, different in number, there are orange or brown markings that differ in intensity. In any case, there is always a clear wide line from the center to the tornus of the forewing. It flies in the evening and comes on light easily. The flying period is from April to September, possibly in one generation, and the wingspan is 15-24mm. The larvae can be found in the roots. Host plant: Musk and Thistle. Dutch name: Distelbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Cochylini
Genus: Cochylimorpha

Straw Conch – 2022 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.660606)

Discovering new leaf rollers in the moth trap is always a surprise. Since many leaf rollers look alike at first glance, I remain alert to possible new species. The Straw Conch (Cochylimorpha straminea) is a leaf roller of a similar species. It is a fairly solid buff moth with a pale rust-coloured band forming a ‘V’ pattern on its back. Some dark brown spots are along the leading edge near the wing tip. Some brown spots are near the trailing edge, but none of the markings are particularly pronounced. The flight period is in two generations, from May to September, and the wingspan is 10-16mm. The larvae feed in the stem just below the flower bud or in young shoots as far as the second generation is concerned. Host plant: Common Knotweed. Dutch name: Moerasbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Cochylini
Genus: Cochylis

Birch Conch – 2021 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.594254)

The Birch Conch (Cochylis nana) has a white head and a white forewing with heavily suffused pale yellow-brown areas. The basal area of the wing is grey, extending along the costa. Halfway from the dorsum, a grey mixed black cross-band narrows towards the costa. A yellow-brown spot can be seen in the centre of this cross-band. The flight period is from May to July in one generation, and the wingspan is 9-13mm. Hostplant: Birch. Dutch Name: Vroege dwergbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Cochylini
Genus: Eulia

Brassy Tortrix – 2019 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 572847)

A leafroller that derives its name from the colour scheme is the Brassy Tortrix (Eulia ministrana). The forewing is pale yellow with orange-brown to reddish-brown spots in the centre and towards the costal edge. There is a white dot or spot at 3/4. The flying period is from April to July in one generation, and the wingspan is 18-25mm. The larvae feed in the spinning between two leaves. Host plant: Birch, Oak, and Willow. Dutch name: Papegaaibladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Cochylini
Genus: Gynnidomorpha

Coast Conch – 2019 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.176455)

Leafrollers are sometimes very difficult to identify. Especially when species from a sub-family are very similar. For now, I will stick to a Coast Conch (Gynnidomorpha permixtana), but this micro moth can also be confused with the somewhat larger Fen Conch (Gynnidomorpha minimana). The Coast Conch has a cream-orange-brown forewing with dark brown or grey spots here and there. Especially along with the costa. There is an oblique dark cross band from 1/3 of the dorsal edge to near the costal edge, where it bends to halfway up the costal edge. The flying period is in two generations, from May to June and from the end of July to August, and the wingspan is 10-12mm. Larvae could be found in the flowers and the seeds. Host plant: Red Bartsia. Dutch name: Ratelaarbladroller. Frisian name:

Flying period:

 

Tribe: Cochylini
Genus: Phalonidia

Loosestrife Conch – 2019 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.176460)

The Loosestrife Conch (Phalonidia udana) is difficult to identify. This leafroller is often confused with the Water-mint Conch (Phalonidia manniana). A genitalia examination is necessary to provide certainty. Based on the colours of the species that I have spotted, I think I am dealing with the Loosestrife Conch. On the predominantly light brown-white forewing, a light brown transverse band starts halfway from the costa, which kinks after 1/3 and turns into a dark brown band. Near the apex is a light brown transverse band that runs diagonally toward the dorsum. The Water-mint Conch often gives a darker and more colourful impression. The flying period is from April to August. Host plant: Reed. Dutch name: Wederikbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Cochylini
Genus: Pseudoargyrotoza

Yellow-spot Twist – 2017 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 1.101037)

The Yellow-spot Twist (Pseudargyrotoza conwagana) is a small yellow-brown leafroller with a striking light yellow spot visible when resting. Furthermore, the small silver-grey small spots that form the transverse lines stand out. The flight time is from May to July and can be admired during the day. The wingspan is 11-15mm. Larvae feed on seeds or berries. Host plant: Privet and Ash. Dutch name: Zilvervlekbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Ramapesiini
Genus: Ditula

Red-barred Tortrix – 2018 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 572840)

The Red-barred Tortrix (Ditula angustiorana) is a relatively small micro-moth. The females are often slightly larger, and the markings are slightly different. The male’s forewing is brown with a pale yellowish-brown circular spot halfway down the wing along the inner margin. Furthermore, a narrow reddish-brown cross band and a reddish-brown marking along the costa near the apex can be seen halfway down the wing. The female’s wing is more orange-brown with a small yellow-brown spot along the costa halfway down. The flying period is from May to August in one generation, and the wingspan is 12-18mm. Larvae usually can be found among spun leaves and developing fruit buds. Host plant: Apple, Pear, Ivy, Juniper, and Larch. Dutch name: Zomerbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Tortricini
Genus: Acleris

Garden Rose Tortrix – 2018 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 572803)

The Garden Rose Tortrix (Acleris variegana) is an easily recognized micro-moth. A clear white spot can be seen when resting with a dark round spot in the middle. The rest of the wing is dark brown or grey. Flight time is one generation from July to September, and the wingspan is 14-18mm. Larvae can be found in a folded leaf or loosely spun leaves. Host plant: Hawthorn, Blackthorn, Pear, Rose, Hazel, and Elm. Dutch name: Witschouderbladroller. Frisian name:

Flying period:

 

Tribe: Tortricini
Genus: Acleris

Rusty Oak Button – 2018 (FR)
(NCBI-index: 758707)

The Rusty Oak Button (Acleris ferrugana) is almost indistinguishable from the Rusty Birch Button (Acleris notana). It would be best to do this through genitalia testing. I am, therefore, not entirely sure whether I made the right choice. The forewing is tan to dark reddish-brown with variable black spots. At the costa is a triangle-shaped pale brown band with the tip protruding halfway up the wing. This dark band is completely smooth with the Rusty Birch Button, while the Rusty Oak Button has a notch on both sides of the triangle. Near the wingtip are black with some silver-grey spots. A straightforward black point can be seen at 1/3 from the base. The flying period is in two generations, one from July to mid-August and one from September to May, when the adults overwinter. The wingspan is 14-18mm. The larvae feed mainly by spinning between leaves. Host plant: Oak. Dutch name: Lichte boogbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Tortricini
Genus: Acleris

Golden Leafroller Moth – 2020 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 572802)

One of the Acleris-species that is quite easy to recognize is the Golden Leafroller Moth (Acleris holmiana). The forewing is yellowish-brown with a lighter colour at the base and the apex. Especially the white triangular spot halfway down the costa makes it unique to recognize this species. The flying period is from June to the beginning of September, and the wingspan is 10-15mm. The larvae feed between two spun leaves. Host plant: Hawthorn, Apple, Pear, and Rose. Dutch name: Rode driehoekbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Tortricini
Genus: Acleris

Maple Button – 2023 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 572801)

A leafroller that is relatively easy to recognize because of its colour and pattern of brown lines is the Maple Button (Acleris forsskaleana). The forewing is yellow with a network of reddish-brown lines. Halfway down the forewing is a striking dark grey-brown line across the wing. Angled in the middle, this transverse line can vary considerably in intensity and width, sometimes with a dark grey spot in the middle. A broader dark grey-brown line runs along the rear edge. The flight period is one generation from June to mid-September, and the wingspan is 12-17mm. Host plant: Field Maple. Dutch name: Kleine boogbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Tortricini
Genus: Aleimma

Yellow Oak Button – 2019 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 758720)

On a summer evening, I came across the Yellow Oak Button (Aleimma loeflingiana) along a sidewalk on some weeds. Enjoying the last rays of the sun falling on its yellow-brown front wing, many small dark brown spots can be seen as if it were sun freckles. The variation in the drawing is very large. Usually, there is a dark marking at the costa at 1/3 and halfway up, and the fringes have a comprehensive brown baseline. The flying period in one generation is from June to August, and the wingspan is 14-19mm. Larvae can be found in a rolled leaf or pocket formed from a rolled leaf. Host plant: Oak and Maple. Dutch name: Zonnesproetbladroller. Frisian name:

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Tribe: Tortricini
Genus: Tortrix

Green Oak Tortrix – 2018 (NL)
(NCBI-index: 311328)

The Green Oak Tortrix (Tortrix viridana) is sometimes confused with the Cream-bordered Green Pea (Earias clorana). There is a clear difference. This micro-moth has its wings flat in the resting position, while the Cream-bordered Green Pea has them in a roof shape in the resting position. The forewing is light green with a light white spotty appearance. The costa shows a very thin yellow line. The males are slightly smaller than the females. The flying period is from May to July in one generation, and the wingspan is 18-23mm. Larvae can be found in a rolled or folded leaf. Host plant: Oak. Dutch name: Groene eikenbladroller. Frisian name:

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