Olethreutinae

The Olethreutinae is a subfamily of the Leafrollers (Tortricidae) and of which about 4400 species have been described worldwide. It is a monophyletic group, a group of organisms that are believed to have all the same common ancestor that is itself included in the taxon and all of which descendants are placed in the same group. The Olethreutinae is a sister group of the Tortricinae. The main food source is from 1 plant family with which they are oligophagous. The eggs are laid individually or in small groups. The hatched larvae mainly bore into fruit, roots, stems, and shoots of plants.

 

Tribe: Bactrini
Genus: Bactra

Rush Marble – 2020 (NL)

The Rush Marble (Bactra lancealana) is often found in humid environments such as swamps, wet heather, and forests. The forewing is grey to light brown with a net-like structure ranging from very light to almost dark brown. Obviously, the dark crescent-shaped mark can often be seen at 2/3 of the wing in the middle. Near the apex, a short brown streak can be seen that sometimes extends to the crescent-shaped mark. The flying period is in two generations from May to October and the wingspan is 11-20mm. The larvae feed on stems. Host plant: Rushes. Dutch name: Gewone biesbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Bactrini
Genus: Bactra

Mottled Marble – 2020 (NL)

A species with elongated wings is the Mottled Marble (Bactra furfurana). The forewing is yellowish-brown or orange-brown with small dark spots scattered across the wing. On 1/3 is a curved transverse band connected to a curved line running down the center of the wing towards a dark spot at 2/3 near the costa. The flying period in one generation is from June to mid-August and the wingspan is 13-19mm. The larvae feed on stems. Host plant: Compact Rush. Dutch name: Getekende biesbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Enarmoniini
Genus: Ancylis

Triangle-marked Tortrix – 2018 (NL)

A very common leafroller in Europe and a minor pest for apple trees, among others, is the Triangle-marked Tortrix (Ancylis achatana). The forewing is reddish-brown to dark brown with two greyish white to silvery gray transverse bands. These two bands are connected by a thin line. A large dark brown triangular spot can be seen on the dorsum of the forewing. The flying period is from the end of May to September in one generation and the wingspan is 14-18mm. The larvae spin or roll together leaves and feed within or nearby. Host plant: Hawthorn, Blackthorn, Apple, and Blackberry. Dutch name: Dwarsstreephaakbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Enarmoniini
Genus: Ancylis

Buckthorn Roller – 2019 (NL)

The forewings of the Buckthorn Roller (Ancylis unculana) ends in a small lobe near the apex. The apex appears to be curved. The wing is dark brown and slightly more orange near the apex. Furthermore, a broad off-white or greyish-white transverse band can be seen running from the base at the costa along the edge, bending halfway down the wing over the wing, and then further back along the dorsum. The flying period is from May to August in one generation and the wingspan is 12-16mm. The larvae spin a folded leaf together at the edges and feed within. Host plant: Buckthorn and Alder Buckthorn. Dutch name: Purperrode haakbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Enarmoniini
Genus: Ancylis

Hook-tipped Roller – 2019 (NL)

The Hook-tipped Roller (Ancylis apicella) gets its name from the curvature at the apex. The forewing is pale yellow-brown along the costa and dark brown or mixed dark brown/pale yellow-brown or grey-brown along the dorsum. There is a cream-colored with a pale brown longitudinal stripe from the base to 3/4 of the wing and then at a narrow-angle towards the costa. At least one dark spot is visible in the light part. The flying period is in two generations from May to September and the wingspan is 12-17mm. The larvae are folding and spinning leaves together. Host plant: Buckthorn and Alder Buckthorn. Dutch name: Fijngestreepte haakbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Endotheniini
Genus: Endothenia

Teasel Marble – 2017 (NL)

The Teasel Marble (Endothenia gentianaeana) is a leafroller that is very difficult to distinguish from the other Endothenia spp. and requires dissection of the genitalia for accurate identification. The wings are blue-gray with two dark transverse bands on top. The outer zone is more white. The flight time is from June to August in one generation and the wingspan is 15-19mm. The larvae always feeds singly on the pith in the cavity of the teasel seedhead. Host plant: Teasel. Dutch name: Kaardebolbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Epiblema

Thistle Bell – 2017 (NL)

The Thistle Bell (Epiblema scutulana) is a moth that is very difficult to distinguish from the Southern Thistle Bell. It is a fairly dark moth with a noticeable white spot in the center of the wings. This is best seen when the moth is in a resting position. It looks like a saddle to which it owes its Dutch name. In some specimens, you can see that the white spot is more of a white band. Flight time is from May to June in one generation and the wingspan is 18-23mm. The larvae are living in the stems and roots. Host plant: Musk Thistle and Spear Thistle. Dutch name: Distelzadelmot. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Epiblema

White-foot Bell – 2020 (NL)

The most striking thing about the White-foot Belle (Epiblema foenella) is the white, sometimes gray, curved spot near the dorsum. From above it looks like a white horseshoe or white bell on the purple-brown to red-brown forewing. Near the tornus is a pale round spot with often three or four black or brown dots. Sometimes the white marking is also missing. The flying period is from the end of June to September in one generation and the wingspan is 17-26mm. Larvae feed in the roots and stems of the host plant. Host plant: Mugwort. Dutch name: Hoefijzermot. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Epinotia

Crescent Bell – 2020 (NL)

The Crescent Bell (Epinotia bilunana) is almost completely cream-white to gray-white and otherwise sparsely speckled with black. At the dorsum at 1/3 a black spot ould be seen that is dark and sharply drawn at the end. Just before the tornus is another striking black spot. The flying period is from July to October in one generation and the wingspan is 13-17mm. The larvae feed on the catkins of a birch tree. Host plant: Birch. Dutch name: Witte oogbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Epinotia

Willow Tortrix – 2020 (NL)

The orange-brown or red-brown color on the forewings of the beautiful Willow Tortrix (Epinotia cruciana) makes this species easy to recognize. Halfway down the forewing is a light cross band that stands out compared to the light brown base. At the costa close to the apex is a white spot that can vary in size. The flying period is from May to early August in one generation and the wingspan is 12-15mm. The larvae feed in spun leaves. Hostplant: Willow. Dutch name: Fraaie oogbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Eucosma

Hoary Bell – 2020 (NL)

The Hoary Bell (Eucosma cana) has a grey-brown to dark brown forewing suffused with white-brown or yellow-brown spots. Along the costa, a brown streak can be seen from the base to the middle of the wing. Three small brown spots can be seen towards the apex. From the costa a brown median band runs halfway across the wing towards the dorsum. The flying period is from May to August in one generation and the wingspan is 16-23mm. The larvae feed on the flower buds and seeds of the host plant. Host plant: Thistle and Common Knapweed. Dutch name: Distelknoopvlekje. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Gypsonoma

Common Cloaked Shoot – 2019 (NL)

A leafroller variable in color is the Common Cloaked Shoot (Gypsonoma dealbana) that just perched on the leaves of the butterfly bush on a summer evening. The head of this leafroller is brown, sometimes mixed with some grey-white. The forewing is white with a dark grey base with black spots. At 2/3 there is a clear black line in the middle of the wing. There are orange-brown spots at the apex. The flying period is from May to August in one generation and the wingspan is 11-14mm. The larvae feed on a range of deciduous trees, windowing leaves in autumn and eating the buds, catkins, young shoots, and then spun leaves in the spring. Host plant: Hawthorn, Oak, Poplar, Sallow, and Hazel. Dutch name: Loofboombladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Notocelia

Yellow-faced Bell – 2018 (NL)

The most striking thing about the Yellow-faced Bell (Notocelia cynosbatella) is the palps which have a yellow to orange color. One-third of the forewing is black to brownish and the rest of the wing is creamy white with occasional light grey or brown blotches. At the end of the wings is a narrow strip that is grey-brown. The flying period in one generation is from May to July and the wingspan is 16-22mm. Larvae feed in flower buds, young shoots, or between leaves. Host plant: Roses and Bramble. Dutch name: Hermelijnbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Notocelia

Bramble Shoot Moth – 2020 (NL)

The Bramble Shoot Moth (Notocelia uddmanniana) is easily recognized by the dark brown arc-shaped spot on the dorsum of the otherwise grey forewing. This dark brown spot is outlined in white. At 1/3 is a dark grey band that extends towards the costa. A dark grey band can be seen along the costa, which slowly deflects to the brown spot. A light brown zone can be seen along the termen. The flying period is from mid-May to October and the wingspan is 15-20mm. The larvae feed on an untidy spinning. Host plant: Blackberry and raspberry. Dutch name: Bramenbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Rhopobota

Holly Tortrix – 2017 (NL)

The Holly Tortrix (Rhopobota naevana) has a light grey or light brown ground color with two wider cross bands on the top that are darker in color. Flight time is from July to September in one generation and the wingspan is 12-16mm. Host plant: Blackthorn, Hawthorn, Holly, and Bilberry. Dutch name: Topspinnertje. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Rhyacionia

Pine Shoot Moth – 2019 (NL)

An easily identifiable and striking appearance is the Pine Shoot Moth (Rhyacionia buoliana). This leafroller is very similar to the Orange-spotted Shoot (Rhyacionia pinicolana), but when you look closely at the irregular white line pattern, the Pine Shoot Moth shows an arc-shaped drawing at the end of the costa that does not continue to the center. With the Orange-spotted Shoot, that white line continues to the apex. The forewing is otherwise bright orange in color, sometimes a little drenched with yellow-brown or reddish-brown. The flying period is from June to August in one generation and the wingspan is 16-24mm. Larvae bore into the shoots. Host plant: Scots Pine. Dutch name: Gewone dennenlotboorder. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Spilonota

Bud Moth – 2018 (NL)

The Bud Moth (Spilonota ocellana) is a leafroller that is difficult to distinguish from the Larch-bud Moth (Spilonota laricana). Actually, a genitalia examination is needed, but it can be recognized because the Bud Moth has narrower forewings, is greyer, and has more black spots. The forewing of the Bud Moth is white, sometimes a pale yellow-brown with a grey diffuse color. From the base, the forewings are black-brown up to a third and white for the rest. Usually, there is a black triangular mark near the apex. Lead grey spots can be seen from the apex to the dorsum. When resting, you can see a dark spot from above after those grey markings. The flying period in one generation is from May to September and the wingspan is 12-17mm. The larvae feed on a wide range of shrubs and trees, and as the English name suggests, burrow into the buds during the spring, causing them to wither. Host plant: Oak, Apple, Hawthorn, and Sallow. Dutch name: Rode knopbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Eucosmini
Genus: Zeiraphera

Cock’s-head Bell – 2021 (NL)

The Cock’s-head Bell (Zeiraphera isertana) is very similar to the Larch Tortrix (Zeiraphera griseana). The difference is in the light blotch halfway down the wing on the dorsum that extends towards the costa. With the Cock’s-head Bell, that spot never extends past the center, whereas the spot on the Larch Tortrix goes past it. In addition, the Cock’s-head Bell is somewhat smaller and has shorter wings. The forewing is otherwise black or black-brown with white or gray markings. The flight period is in one generation from May to September and the wingspan is about 17 mm. Host plant: Oak. Dutch name: Grootkopbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Grapholitini
Genus: Cydia

Codling Moth – 2017 (NL)

The Codling Moth (Cydia pomonella), also called Apple Leafroller, has a grey forewing with thin brownish transverse lines. On the outside, this leafroller has a coppery or gold-colored eye with a triangular black stripe in the center. The Codling Moth is responsible for the worm-eaten in apples and pears. That is why the apples on the fruit tree in my garden often have these weird spots in them. The flying time is in one sometimes two generations from May to October and the wingspan is 14-22mm. The caterpillars feed inside the fruits of apple, quince, pear, and other wild and cultivated fruits. Host plant: Apple and Pear. Dutch name: Fruitmot. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Grapholitini
Genus: Cydia

Pea Moth – 2020 (NL)

One species to be aware of not to confuse it with a species from another genus is the Pea Moth (Cydia nigricana). It is very similar to the Deep-brown Piercer (Grapholita tenebrosana). Both have a uniform forewing that is grey-brown to dark brown and sometimes yellow-grey. Near the costa, close to the apex, you see a few short white stripes alternating with black paces. The hindwing of the Pea Moth is dark brown with contrasting white fringes. The Deep-brown Piercer has a pale grey-brown hindwing and the white stripes at the costa are less pronounced. The palps of the Pea Moth are mottled pale brown or dark grey on top and white on the underside. At the Deep-brown Piercer, they are completely white. The flying period is from May to August in one generation and the wingspan is 12-16mm. The larvae feed in the pods. Host plant: Pea. Dutch name: Erwtenbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Grapholitini
Genus: Cydia

Rusty Oak Moth – 2020 (NL)

The forewing of the Rusty Oak Moth (Cydia amplana) is orange-brown, dark brown at the apex on the dorsum, and a cream-colored dorsal spot halfway. Alternating light and dark short stripes can be seen along the costa. The flying period is from July to early October in one generation and the wingspan is 16-20mm. The larvae feed on nuts. Host plant: Oak, Walnut, Beech, and Hazel. Dutch name: Oranje eikenbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Grapholitini
Genus: Dichrorampha

Sharp-winged Drill – 2019 (NL)

A leafroller that at first glance has a bit of a grey appearance, but on closer inspection still has a variety of stripes and colors. The Sharp-winged Drill (Dichrorampha acuminatana) has a forewing that is dark brown, sometimes with a light purple or pink glow. Furthermore, the wing is speckled with a faint yellow-brown and broad brown-white almost triangular spot. There are three to six black dots on the termen and the fringes are glossy dark grey with a central white band. The caterpillar feeds on the root of its host plant and is therefore not a leafroller in its naming. The flying period is in two generations from April to September and the wingspan is 10-15mm. The larvae burrow into the rootstock and feed within. Host plant: Daisy. Dutch name: Margrietwortelmot. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Grapholitini
Genus: Pammene

Acorn Piercer – 2017 (NL)

The Acorn Piercer (Pammene fasciana) has a white ground color with a transverse band of silver-grey small stripes on the inside of the wing and brown color on the outside. The flight time is from June to August and the wingspan is 13-17mm. The larvae feed internally in the acorns of oak and the nuts of sweet chestnut. Host plant: Oak and Sweet Chestnut. Dutch name: Gewone dwergbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Grapholitini
Genus: Pammene

Sycamore Piercer – 2020 (NL)

In the summer I regularly walk past the plants in my garden to spot any micro-moths. Sometimes you are lucky and you suddenly see a new species. This was also the case with the Sycamore Piercer (Pammene aurita). This leafroller is predominantly brown to orange-brown with a large pale yellow spot at the dorsum halfway up the forewing. The tornus is darker in color and short white spots can be seen along the costa. The flying period is one generation from July to September and the wingspan is 14-15mm. The larvae feed on silk in buds. Host plant: Sycamore. Dutch name: Morgenroodbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Olethreutini
Genus: Apotomis

Birch Marble – 2018 (NL)

The Birch Marble (Apotomis betuletana) is very similar to the Willow Marble (Apotomis capreana). From the wing base, the front wing is 2/3 black-brown mixed with lead-colored and black spots. The other part of the forewing is white with a yellow-brown spot. The difference between the Birch Marble and the Willow Marble is best seen from the top view. With the Birch Marble, you can see a light grey thin line in the shape of a fish hook in the dark part. Furthermore, the two black spots on the border of the dark and white part on the Birch Marble are much darker than on the Willow Marble. The flying period is from June to September in one generation and the wingspan is 16-20mm. The larvae are spinning and rolling leaves together. Host plant: Birch. Dutch name: Berkenmarmerbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Olethreutini
Genus: Celypha

Barred Marble – 2015 (NL)

The Barred Marble (Celypha striana) has a light grey-brown ground color and its dark median band distinguishes it from the other Celypha spp. There is also a second angled dark band close to the apex. This leafroller flies from dusk in the period from June to August and the wingspan is 16-22mm. In first instance, the larvae are under a silken web on the surface of the taproot, later in the roots. Host plant: Dandelion. Dutch name: Paardenbloembladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Olethreutini
Genus: Celypha

Common Marble – 2017 (NL)

The Common Marble (Celypha lacunana) is very variable in color shade, but can often be recognized by the indentation or fading of the dark transverse band. This leafroller flies at night and is attracted to light. Flight time is in two generations from May to August and the wingspan is 16-18mm. The larvae feed on a wide variety of plants in spun leaves, shoots, and flowers. Host plant: Beech, Birch, Willow, and Nettle. Dutch name: Brandnetelbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Olethreutini
Genus: Hedya

Off-white Hedya – 2018 (NL)

It is sometimes very difficult to distinguish certain types of leafrollers. At first, I was convinced that the spotted leafroller belonged to the Apotomis family, but after careful study and with the help of literature I came to the Hedya species, Off-white Hedya (Hedya ochroleucana). This leafroller has a striking cream-colored outer side of the forewing with a few light brown spots along the edge and a few small black dots in the pace itself. These light brown spots fade in color over time, but this leafroller can still be recognized by the two dark stripes in the outer two spots. Two-thirds of the forewing is dark brown mixed with blue-grey and black surfaces. The flying period is from June to September in one generation and the wingspan is 16-21mm. Larvae are spinning leaves together. Host plant: Rose and Apple. Dutch name: Grote witvlakbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Olethreutini
Genus: Hedya

Marbled Orchard Tortrix – 2018 (NL)

A leafroller that belongs to the white surface leafrollers is the ordinary Marbled Orchard Tortrix (Hedya nubiferana). The forewing is about 2/3 dark brown or dark yellow-brown mixed with blue-grey and black spots from the base. The other 1/3 towards the apex is white with pale grey or grey-brown streaks. The flying period in one generation is from May to August and the wingspan is 15-21mm. Larvae feed in spun flowers, leaves, and shoots. Host plant: Oak, Hawthorn, and Blackthorn. Dutch name: Gewone witvlakbladroller. Frisian name: –

 

Tribe: Olethreutini
Genus: Olethreutes

Arched Marble – 2018 (NL)

A very striking appearance, especially when you later enlarge the photos on your laptop, is the Arched Marble (Olethreutes arcuella). The orange base color of the wings with the silver-blue transverse lines is particularly striking when you encounter this leafroller in the field resting on a green leaf. Just after the front transverse band is a light yellow spot with black shading and some silver-blue spots in it. The orange color can be seen as the color of the dress of a Japanese geisha and the silver-blue stripes as the spokes of the parasol that she spins. The Arched Marble flies in one generation from May to August and the wingspan is 14-18mm. Host plant: Fallen leaves and plant remains. Dutch name: Geisha. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Olethreutini
Genus: Orthotaenia

Woodland Marble – 2020 (NL)

The Woodland Marble (Orthotaenia undulana) is very similar to the Common Marble (Celypha lacunana). The big difference is in the dark median band halfway up the forewing. With the Woodland Marble this is a completely dark band, but with the Common Marble the pre-median cream-white band runs through the dark cross band in the middle, like a kind of finger. Furthermore, the apical zone of the Woodland Marble is lighter in color and the dark markings are more prominent. The larvae feed in leaves that are spun together. Host plant: Birch, Honeysuckle, and Billberry. Dutch name: Woudbladroller. Frisian name:

 

Tribe: Olethreutini
Genus: Piniphila

Pine Marble – 2019 (NL)

The first spot of the Pine Marble (Piniphila bifasciana) was in the night when it was attracted to the light. This leafroller has a brown-grey forewing with two wide white cross bands. One band is 1/3 of the wing and one close to the apex. The bands are usually grey-white or yellow-brown, and sometimes orange to pink. Especially the band close to the wingtip. The flying period in one generation is from June to August and the wingspan is 12-16mm. The larvae feed in a silken gallery among the young shoots and male flowers. Host plant: Scotch Pine. Dutch name: Tweebandbladroller. Frisian name: